Updating software in wireless sensor networks a survey interracial dating kenya attitudes
Based on these findings, future prospects are discussed and final conclusions will be drawn.wireless sensor networks; secure routing; WSNs Since years, the monitoring of areas of interest is a topic of great importance for civil as well as military applications, such as emergency scenarios, manufacturing environments, battle fields etc.Moreover, the fusion of sensed data needs to be considered in WSN routing protocols to reduce redundant transmissions of the same data.Although, the routing of data packets in WSNs is an essential service, which makes communication possible in the first place, security issues in the area of routing were mainly ignored.
Therefore, the sensor nodes have to cooperate to be able to monitor bigger areas, aggregate measured values and transfer them to a point in the network were the data can be readout and evaluated.
[8,10,68], in this paper security issues of WSNs with a special focus on the network layer will be discussed.
The remainder of the paper is organized as follows: in Section 2, the special characteristics of WSNs are discussed.
For that reason, the technical and architectural characteristics of WSNs are highlighted in the following section covering, on the one hand, the constraints of single sensor nodes and, on the other hand, the constraints of the overall WSN topology.
Concluding, security considerations for the network layer in WSNs resulting from these characteristics are discussed. [4,65,68]) Sensor node constraints The memory built into a sensor node is usually rather small (few KB).All further things, such as executable program code, buffered messages, routing tables etc. Also the computational power of the sensor nodes is severely constrained due to cost and energy-saving considerations.For that reason, most of the sensor nodes utilize weak processors with a clock-rate of 4–8MHz such as Atmega128L  or MSP430 .In Section 3, the basic requirements for secure WSNs are presented and, afterwards, in Section 4, different types of attacks on WSNs, with a special focus on the network layer, are investigated.